TANAKH AND THE ORAL LAW
Biblical Law, i.e. Torah, is not a set
of religious guidelines for those who believe. Torah is national
law, governing Israel--both the land and the people, whether or
not they be in the land. It includes both civil statutes and criminal
code. The determination of what Torah is, therefore, is the determination
of what individual behavior is permitted or prohibited, and what
national goals and policy are to be embraced or shunned.
Since there are no rabbis in Torah or Tanakh, it can only be the oral law that appoints them the authorized interpreters and guardians of Torah. It can only be the oral law that establishes their place and authority.
What establishes the authority of the oral law? To answer that, we need to know where it came from and when it appeared. The origin and the purpose of the oral law are inseparable one from the other. The better we understand the one, the better we will understand the other. Knowing the origin and purpose enable us to identify its source.
If the oral law was in some way given at Sinai, then Rabbinic Judaism would be a continuation of God's revelation at that time. On the other hand, if the oral law was not given at Sinai, and did not appear until the first and second century, then rabbinic Judaism would be a distinctly new religion.
To determine when the oral law first appeared, we need to know exactly what it is. That is not simple. In the Talmud, there are three related, but significantly different and distinct claims concerning the oral law:
1. The oral law is a separate divine revelation to Moses at Sinai.
2. The oral law is an extended interpretation and elaboration of the written Torah which was given to Moses. [Or, it was present as a seed in the written Torah, but later grew and flourished.]
3. The oral law is a fence around the written Torah.
What is the record of Tanakh concerning the oral law? On the basis of what is in the Law, the Writings, and the Prophets, was there, or could there have been, an oral law given by God to Moses at Sinai? If there was an oral law which God gave to Moses, Moses never mentioned it, nor did Joshua, Ezra or any other person in the Bible. If it existed, it was not part of God's covenant with Israel. Nor was it relevant to the blessing or judgment of God.
No prophet, priest, or king either mentions it, or demonstrates any concern to know it, obey it, or teach it. It was not relevant to the governance or required worship of Israel. Nor did it play any part in the instruction of the people or their children.
The First Talmudic Claim: The Oral
Law is a separate divine revelation given by God to Moses at Sinai.
"Moses received the Torah at Sinai and transmitted it to Joshua, Joshua to the elders, and the elders to the prophets, and the prophets to the men of the great synagogue." Avoth 1:1 The Talmud describes how the oral law was given to Moses and then passed on throughout the history of Israel. Eruvin 54b
According to Tanakh, what is "the Law of Moses" ? Does it include the Oral Law? If it does not include it, does it permit the possibility of an Oral Law having been given at Sinai in one form or another?
The Record of the Torah
It seems that the scriptural incident that inspired the Talmudic account may have been the battle against Amalek. Amalek attacked Israel in the wilderness, but Israel triumphed in this first encounter. "Then the LORD said to Moses, 'Write this on a scroll as something to be remembered and put it in the ears of Joshua, because I will completely blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven.' "1
Here, of course, what was put in the ears of Joshua was written down first. What was written down was to be verbally recounted to the one who would lead Israel into future battles.
When Moses initially presented to the people the covenant of the Law which he had received from the Lord, the people accepted it. "Moses then wrote down all the words of the LORD. He got up early the next morning and built an altar at the foot of the mountain and set up twelve stone pillars representing the twelve tribes of Israel. Then he sent young Israelite men, and they offered burnt offerings and sacrificed young bulls as fellowship offerings to the LORD.
"Moses took half of the blood and put it in bowls, and the other half he sprinkled on the altar. Then he took the Book of the Covenant and read it to the people. They responded, 'We will do everything the LORD has said; we will obey.'
"Moses then took the blood, sprinkled it on the people and said, 'This is the blood of the covenant that the LORD has made with you in accordance with all these words.'"2
Moses "wrote down everything the LORD had said.Then he took the Book of the Covenant and read it to the people."
On the basis of what Moses wrote and then read to the people - i.e. "everything the LORD had said" - the people responded, "We will do everything the LORD has said; we will obey." They committed themselves to the covenant which Moses had written and then read to them. It is that covenant that was "cut" in the blood of the sacrifice.
Then, "The LORD said to Moses, 'Come up to me on the mountain and stay here, and I will give you the tablets of stone with the law and commands I have written for their instruction.'"3 Israel was to be instructed by what was written. Covenants were put in writing to fix their text and make their terms binding.
At the conclusion of Leviticus, we are told, "These are the decrees, the laws and the regulations that the LORD established on Mount Sinai between himself and the Israelites through Moses."4
At the conclusion of Numbers, we are told, "These are the commands and regulations the LORD gave through Moses to the Israelites on the plains of Moab by the Jordan across from Jericho."5 What the Lord added on the plains of Moab to the covenant he gave Israel on Mt. Sinai was also recorded in written form.
When Moses neared the end of his life, he told the people what the law would be concerning the king that they would one day want to rule over them. Kings are particularly susceptible to certain sins. Every king of Israel, therefore, is to guard himself from such sins, so that he can faithfully lead the people as the Lord's servant.
"When he takes the throne of his kingdom, he is to write for himself on a scroll a copy of this law, taken from that of the priests, who are Levites. It is to be with him, and he is to read it all the days of his life so that he may learn to revere the LORD his God and follow carefully all the words of this law and these decrees and not consider himself better than his brothers and turn from the law to the right or to the left. Then he and his descendants will reign a long time over his kingdom in Israel."6
The priests would have a written scroll of the law of the Lord which had been given through Moses. That is because the Lord charged Aaron, "you must teach the Israelites all the decrees the LORD has given them through Moses."7
The king is to personally "write for himself on a scroll a copy of this lawand he is to read it all the days of his life." He is not to "turn from the law [which he has copied] to the right or to the left." It is the written law that is to guide and judge the king.
Just before his death, and before Israel was to enter the promised land, Moses instructed the generation which had grown up in the wilderness about what the Lord required of them. He told them to bind themselves to an oath to carry out the law of the Lord. He gave them these preliminary instructions:
"When you have crossed the Jordan into the land the LORD your God is giving you, set up some large stones and coat them with plaster. Write on them all the words of this law when you have crossed over to enter the land the LORD your God is giving you, a land flowing with milk and honey, just as the LORD, the God of your fathers, promised you.And you shall write very clearly all the words of this law on these stones you have set up."8
It is "all the words of this law" which the people write on the stones. It is to what they have written that they are to bind themselves, saying, "'Cursed is the man who does not uphold the words of this law by carrying them out.' Then all the people shall say, 'Amen!' "9
Obedience to "all the words of this law" which are written will bring blessing. Disobedience will bring curses.
"If you do not carefully follow all the words of this law, which are written in this bookthe LORD will send fearful plagues on you and your descendants, harsh and prolonged disasters, and severe and lingering illnesses. He will bring upon you all the diseases of Egypt that you dreaded, and they will cling to you. The LORD will also bring on you every kind of sickness and disaster not recorded in this Book of the Law, until you are destroyed. You who were as numerous as the stars in the sky will be left but few in number, because you did not obey the LORD your God."10
It is obedience to the written law that determines whether Israel will be blessed or cursed. Moses stated explicitly that the written laws he was commanding the people that day were also part of their covenant with the Lord. "These are the terms of the covenant the LORD commanded Moses to make with the Israelites in Moab, in addition to the covenant he had made with them at Horeb."11
The words of the covenant were written down, and the blessings and curses were written down. Israel was told, "Carefully follow the terms of this covenant, so that you may prosper in everything you do."12
If a person's heart turned away from following the Lord, "The LORD will never be willing to forgive him; His wrath and zeal will burn against that man. All the curses written in this book will fall upon him, and the LORD will blot out his name from under heaven. The LORD will single him out from all the tribes of Israel for disaster, according to all the curses of the covenant written in this Book of the Law."13
The covenant was written down. The curses for turning away from it were also written down. The name of the one who turned away from what was written would be blotted out. The only thing not written down were "every kind of sickness and disaster not recorded in this Book of the Law" which the Lord would bring on those who disobeyed what was written.
Moses prophesied that Israel would turn away from the written covenant of the Lord. He detailed the horrors that would follow such a turning away, especially the horrors that would take place in exile. Even the land of Israel itself would be severely afflicted, so that "All the nations will ask: 'Why has the LORD done this to this land? Why this fierce, burning anger?'
"And the answer will be: 'It is because this people abandoned the covenant of the LORD, the God of their fathers, the covenant He made with them when He brought them out of Egypt. They went off and worshipped other gods and bowed down to them, gods they did not know, gods He had not given them. Therefore the LORD's anger burned against this land, so that he brought on it all the curses written in this book'"14
The covenant was written down for instruction. The curses were given as a warning. They were also written down as a future witness for the day when Israel would break the written covenant.
Moses then prophesied that after all these curses, there would be a turning back to the Lord. This turning back would bring restoration from the Lord, a restoration that would be conditional upon obeying the written covenant.
"You will again obey the LORD and follow all His commands I am giving you today. Then the LORD your God will make you most prosperous in all the work of your hands and in the fruit of your womb, the young of your livestock and the crops of your land. The LORD will again delight in you and make you prosperous, just as He delighted in your fathers, if you obey the LORD your God and keep His commands and decrees that are written in this Book of the Law and turn to the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul."15
"So Moses wrote down this law and gave it to the priests, the sons of Levi, who carried the ark of the covenant of the LORD, and to all the elders of Israel. Then Moses commanded them: 'At the end of every seven years, in the year for canceling debts, during the Feast of Tabernacles, when all Israel comes to appear before the LORD your God at the place He will choose, you shall read this law before them in their hearing. Assemble the people--men, women and children, and the aliens living in your towns--so they can listen and learn to fear the LORD your God and follow carefully all the words of this law. Their children, who do not know this law, must hear it and learn to fear the LORD your God as long as you live in the land you are crossing the Jordan to possess.'"16
Future generations were to live and worship in accordance with the written Law of the Lord. Every seven years, all Israel was to assemble to hear the Law read to them. The priests were responsible for reading the law to the people. The written law was to instruct the children of each generation so that they would "learn to fear the Lord."
In addition to the written law itself, God gave Moses and Israel a song to testify in the future of His faithfulness and Israel's unfaithfulness. "Now write down for yourselves this song and teach it to the Israelites and have them sing it, so that it may be a witness for me against them."17 The law was written, and the witness of the law was written.
"After Moses finished writing in a book the words of this law from beginning to end, he gave this command to the Levites who carried the ark of the covenant of the LORD: 'Take this Book of the Law and place it beside the ark of the covenant of the LORD your God. There it will remain as a witness against you.'"18 Moses wrote all the words of the law "from beginning to end." The written "Book of the Law" would be a witness against the Levites and Israel for their future unfaithfulness.
According to the Torah, it is the written law that comprised God's covenant with Israel. It is the written law that is the guide to proper governance, and the standard by which those who govern will be judged. It is disobedience to the written law that will bring judgment and exile. It is obedience to the written law that will bring restoration. It is the written law that is to be taught to future generations.
There is no mention of an oral law.
The Record from Moses to the Exile
After the death of Moses, the Lord spoke to Joshua: "Be strong and very courageous. Be careful to obey all the law my servant Moses gave you; do not turn from it to the right or to the left, that you may be successful wherever you go. Do not let this Book of the Law depart from your mouth; meditate on it day and night, so that you may be careful to do everything written in it. Then you will be prosperous and successful."19
Joshua was commanded to meditate on the Book of the Law day and night to insure that he would obey all the law that Moses had given him. What was written in The Book of the Law was to be in his mouth. He was to be "careful to do everything written in it." Doing what was written in the Book of the Law would make him "prosperous and successful."
On Mt. Ebal, Joshua renewed the covenant between Israel and the Lord. He built an altar "as Moses the servant of the LORD had commanded the Israelites. He built it according to what is written in the Book of the Law of Moses--an altar of uncut stones, on which no iron tool had been used. On it they offered to the LORD burnt offerings and sacrificed fellowship offerings. There, in the presence of all Israel, Joshua wrote on the stones the copy of the law of Moses, which he had written.
"Afterward, Joshua read all the words of the law - the blessings and the curses - just as it is written in the Book of the Law. There was not a word of all that Moses had commanded that Joshua did not read to the whole assembly of Israel, including the women and children, and the aliens who lived among them."20
The words translated "copy of the law" are Mishneh Torat , the words which the Rabbis used to designate the Oral Law. They refer to a copy of the written law which was read to all the people, rather than to a different law recited by memory to a select group.
It was the written Book of the Law that determined how the altar was to be built. When the altar was ready, "Joshua wrote on the stones the copy of the law of Moses, which he [Moses] had written." All that Moses commanded was written before all the people.
Then, "Joshua read all the words of the lawjust as it is written in the Book of the Law. There was not a word of all that Moses had commanded that Joshua did not read to the whole assembly of Israel." Joshua read every word of all that Moses had commanded. Every word that Moses had commanded had been written down.
Before Joshua died, he "summoned all Israel--their elders, leaders, judges and officials--and said to them: 'Be very strong; be careful to obey all that is written in the Book of the Law of Moses, without turning aside to the right or to the left.'"21
Just as Moses had charged Joshua and his generation, so Joshua charged the next generation: "obey all that is written in the Book of the Law of Moses." Their response to what was written would determine their fate.
Joshua gathered the people one more time at Shechem. "On that day Joshua made a covenant for the people, and there at Shechem he drew up for them decrees and laws. And Joshua recorded these things in the Book of the Law of God. Then he took a large stone and set it up there under the oak near the holy place of the LORD."22 Joshua recorded the confirmation of the covenant and the added decrees and laws.
As we previously noted, the Law of Moses requires each king of Israel to write out a personal copy of the Law. From the behavior of many of the kings, it can certainly be doubted that they ever wrote it or read it. They did not follow the Law of the Lord.
For most of David's life, he was careful to follow the Law of the Lord. For example, "David left Zadok the priest and his fellow priests before the tabernacle of the LORD at the high place in Gibeon to present burnt offerings to the LORD on the altar of burnt offering regularly, morning and evening, in accordance with everything written in the Law of the LORD, which he had given Israel."23 The sacrifices were to be offered "in accordance with everything written in the Law of the LORD." What was written was determinative. "When the time drew near for David to die, he gave a charge to Solomon his son. 'I am about to go the way of all the earth,' he said. 'So be strong, show yourself a man, and observe what the LORD your God requires: Walk in His ways, and keep His decrees and commands, His laws and requirements, as written in the Law of Moses, so that you may prosper in all you do and wherever you go, and that the LORD may keep his promise to me: If your descendants watch how they live, and if they walk faithfully before Me with all their heart and soul, you will never fail to have a man on the throne of Israel.'"24
David charged Solomon to keep the decrees, commands, laws, and requirements "as written in the Law of Moses." That would guarantee prosperity in every area of his life and the continuity of the Davidic kingdom. Obeying what was "written in the Law of Moses" was equated with walking faithfully before the Lord.
King Joash of Judah was assassinated by some of his own officials. His son Amaziah became king after him. "After the kingdom was firmly in his grasp, he executed the officials who had murdered his father the king. Yet he did not put the sons of the assassins to death, in accordance with what is written in the Book of the Law of Moses where the LORD commanded: 'Fathers shall not be put to death for their children, nor children put to death for their fathers; each is to die for his own sins.'"25
Amaziah was a righteous king. He governed according to what was "written in the Book of the Law of Moses."
When King Ahaziah of Judah was killed, his mother, Athaliah, usurped the throne by murdering all but one of her son's children. The one, Joash, was hidden by his aunt and uncle, the priest Jehoiada. Seven years later, Jehoiada planned and performed the coronation of Joash, the child king. "Jehoiada and his sons brought out the king's son and put the crown on him; they presented him with a copy of the covenant and proclaimed him king. They anointed him and shouted, 'Long live the king!'"26
Jehoiada gave Joash a written copy of the covenant, the Law of Moses. That copy was to be Joash's guide in ruling the kingdom. (As long as Jehoiada lived, it was.)
"Then Jehoiada placed the oversight of the Temple of the LORD in the hands of the priests, who were Levites, to whom David had made assignments in the Temple, to present the burnt offerings of the LORD as written in the Law of Moses, with rejoicing and singing, as David had ordered."27
The burnt offerings were presented according to what was "written in the Law of Moses." That was the guide for offering the sacrifices properly.
Likewise, when King Hezekiah wanted to bring Judah back to the Lord, "They decided to send a proclamation throughout Israel, from Beersheba to Dan, calling the people to come to Jerusalem and celebrate the Passover to the LORD, the God of Israel. It had not been celebrated in large numbers according to what was written.Although most of the many people who came from Ephraim, Manasseh, Issachar and Zebulun had not purified themselves, yet they ate the Passover, contrary to what was written.
"But Hezekiah prayed for them, saying, 'May the LORD, who is good, pardon everyone who sets his heart on seeking God--the LORD, the God of his fathers--even if he is not clean according to the rules of the sanctuary.' And the LORD heard Hezekiah and healed the people."28
Passover was to be celebrated "according to what was written." Those who celebrated "contrary to what was written" were guilty before the Lord.
The priests, however, were careful to consecrate themselves according to the Law. "Then they took up their regular positions as prescribed in the Law of Moses the man of God. The priests sprinkled the blood handed to them by the Levites."29
Hezekiah also sought to cleanse the land of idolatry and reinstitute the proper worship of the Lord. Accordingly, "The king contributed from his own possessions for the morning and evening burnt offerings and for the burnt offerings on the Sabbaths, New Moons and appointed feasts as written in the Law of the LORD."30
All the sacrifices were to be offered according to what was "written in the Law of the LORD." All the feasts were to be celebrated according to what was "written in the Law of the LORD."
In the days of Josiah, a similar revival took place. When Josiah the king first heard the words of the Law, he tore his robes. Then he ordered his servants: "Go and inquire of the LORD for me and for the people and for all Judah about what is written in this book that has been found. Great is the LORD's anger that burns against us because our fathers have not obeyed the words of this book; they have not acted in accordance with all that is written there concerning us."31
It was the words written in the book of the Law that moved Josiah to repentance. It was the failure to observe what was written in the book, that had brought judgment on Judah.
God confirmed Josiah's assessment of the situation: "This is what the LORD says: 'I am going to bring disaster on this place and its people, according to everything written in the book the king of Judah has read.' "32 God held the people accountable for what was written in the covenant.
In response, Josiah "went up to the temple of the LORD with the men of Judah, the people of Jerusalem, the priests and the prophets - all the people from the least to the greatest. He read in their hearing all the words of the Book of the Covenant, which had been found in the temple of the LORD. The king stood by the pillar and renewed the covenant in the presence of the LORD--to follow the LORD and keep his commands, regulations and decrees with all his heart and all his soul, thus confirming the words of the covenant written in this book. Then all the people pledged themselves to the covenant."33
Josiah read "all the words of the Book of the Covenant." That is the covenant he then renewed. He confirmed "the words of the covenant written in this book." It was the written covenant to which "all the people pledged themselves."
Then Josiah set about cleansing the land and people of all their abominations. He set about restoring the proper worship of the Lord. "The king gave this order to all the people: 'Celebrate the Passover to the LORD your God, as it is written in this Book of the Covenant.'"34
"They set aside the burnt offerings to give them to the subdivisions of the families of the people to offer to the LORD, as is written in the Book of Moses."35 The guide for proper worship and celebration was what was "written in this Book of the Covenant," i.e. "the Book of Moses."
"Furthermore, Josiah got rid of the mediums and spiritists, the household gods, the idols and all the other detestable things seen in Judah and Jerusalem. This he did to fulfill the requirements of the law written in the book that Hilkiah the priest had discovered in the temple of the LORD. Neither before nor after Josiah was there a king like him who turned to the LORD as he did--with all his heart and with all his soul and with all his strength, in accordance with all the Law of Moses."36
Josiah sought only "to fulfill the requirements of the law written in the book." For that, he is highly commended. The Law of Moses was what was written in the book.
To summarize, the record of Tanakh concerning the time from Moses to the exile is that it was the written law that was to be the object of meditation and the guide for those - whether general, priest, or king - who governed and lead in Israel. It was the written law that defined individual and corporate fidelity or infidelity to the Lord.
It was the written law that was followed in building the altar and in offering the sacrifices. It was the written law that was to be taught to Israel throughout its generations. It was obedience to the written law that would bring prosperity and success. It was the written law that was to be taught to future generations. According to Tanakh, concerning the time from Moses to the exile, not one word of all of the Law of Moses was unwritten.
There is no mention of an oral law.
The Record in the Exile and in the
The Record in the Exile and in the Return In the Torah, God promised to send Israel into exile for disobedience to what was written in His Law. In exile in Babylon, Daniel the prophet read in the book of Jeremiah that "the desolation of Jerusalem [would last] 70 years."37 Those 70 years were coming to an end, and Daniel wrote, "So I turned to the Lord God and pleaded with him in prayer and petition, in fasting, and in sackcloth and ashes."38
In seeking the Lord's mercy and forgiveness, Daniel confessed the sins of Israel. "All Israel has transgressed Your law and turned away, refusing to obey You. Therefore the curses and sworn judgments written in the Law of Moses, the servant of God, have been poured out on us, because we have sinned against You.Just as it is written in the Law of Moses, all this disaster has come upon us, yet we have not sought the favor of the LORD our God by turning from our sins and giving attention to Your truth."39
In Daniel's understanding, the curses, judgments, and exile which had been decreed and "written in the Law of Moses" had been fulfilled. That was what defined Israel's sin. He prayed in the expectation that the promise of restoration which was written in the Book of Jeremiah would also be fulfilled.
Ezra is the most important of the dozen scribes who are mentioned by name in Tanakh. He is the only scribe mentioned in Tanakh who was a leader in Israel. In the Talmud, Ezra is very important in the transmission of the oral law. What do the books of Ezra and Nehemiah tell us concerning the written and oral law? "For Ezra had devoted himself to the study and observance of the Law of the LORD, and to teaching its decrees and laws in Israel."40
"Jeshua son of Jozadak and his fellow priests and Zerubbabel son of Shealtiel and his associates began to build the altar of the God of Israel to sacrifice burnt offerings on it, in accordance with what is written in the Law of Moses the man of God.Then in accordance with what is written, they celebrated the Feast of Tabernacles with the required number of burnt offerings prescribed for each day."41
Jeshua and Zerubbabel were among the first group that returned to Israel from Babylon. During their time, the altar was built, the sacrifices were offered, and Sukkot was celebrated "in accordance with what is written in the Law of Moses."
"So the elders of the Jews continued to build and prosper under the preaching of Haggai the prophet and Zechariah, a descendant of Iddo. They finished building the temple according to the command of the God of Israel and the decrees of Cyrus, Darius, and Artaxerxes, kings of Persia.And they installed the priests in their divisions and the Levites in their groups for the service of God at Jerusalem, according to what is written in the Book of Moses."42 In the time of Haggai and Zechariah, the guide for installing the priests was "what is written in the Book of Moses."
Ezra recorded those things about those who returned before him. What about the time of his own return? What did Ezra himself teach? the written law? the oral law? both?
"all the people assembled as one man in the square before the Water Gate. They told Ezra the scribe to bring out the Book of the Law of Moses, which the LORD had commanded for Israel. So on the first day of the seventh month Ezra the priest brought the Law before the assembly, which was made up of men and women and all who were able to understand. He read it aloud from daybreak till noon as he faced the square before the Water Gate in the presence of the men, women and others who could understand. And all the people listened attentively to the Book of the Law.
"Ezra opened the book. All the people could see him because he was standing above them; and as he opened it, the people all stood up.The Levitesinstructed the people in the Law while the people were standing there. They read from the Book of the Law of God, making it clear and giving the meaning so that the people could understand what was being read."43
Ezra read to the people from the Book of the Law. The Levites did the same. Then they explained the written text because the ancient language was not clear to the people.
"On the second day of the month, the heads of all the families, along with the priests and the Levites, gathered around Ezra the scribe to give attention to the words of the Law. They found written in the Law, which the LORD had commanded through Moses, that the Israelites were to live in booths during the feast of the seventh month and that they should proclaim this word and spread it throughout their towns and in Jerusalem: 'Go out into the hill country and bring back branches from olive and wild olive trees, and from myrtles, palms and shade trees, to make booths'--as it is written."44
They sought to obey what they found written in the Law. So the people celebrated Sukkot in accordance with what was written in the Law. "Day after day, from the first day to the last, Ezra read from the Book of the Law of God. They celebrated the feast for seven days, and on the eighth day, in accordance with the regulation, there was an assembly."45
Later in the same month the people gathered again. "They stood where they were and read from the Book of the Law of the LORD their God for a quarter of the day, and spent another quarter in confession and in worshipping the LORD their God."46 The people confessed their sins because of what they had heard read from the Book of the Law.
The Record of the Torah
1. Ex. 17:14
2. Exod. 24:4-8
3. Exod. 24:12
4. Lev. 26:46
5. Num. 36:13
6. Deut. 17:18-20
7. Lev. 10:11
8. Deut. 27:2-3,8
9. Deut. 27:26
10. Deut. 28:58-62
11. Deut. 29:1
12. Deut. 29:9
13. Deut. 29:20-21
14. Deut. 29:24-27
15. Deut. 30:8-10
16. Deut. 31:9-13
17. Deut. 31:19
18. Deut. 31:24-26
The Record from Moses to the Exile
19. Josh. 1:7-8
20. Josh. 8:31-32,34-35
21. Josh. 23:2,6
22. Josh. 24:25-26
23. 1Chr. 16:39-40
24. 1Kgs. 2:1-4
25. 2Kgs. 14:5-6
26. 2Chr. 23:11
27. 2Chr. 23:18
28. 2Chr. 30:5,18-20
30. 2Chr. 31:3
31. 2Kgs. 22:13
32. 2Kgs. 22:16
33. 2Kgs. 23:2-3
34. 2Kgs. 23:21
35. 2Chr. 35:12
36. 2Kgs. 23:24-25
The Record in the Exile and in the Return
37. Dan.9:2, referring to Jer.25:11-12
39. Dan. 9:11,13
40. Ezra 7:10
41. Ezra 3:2,4
42. Ezra 6:14,18
43. Neh. 8:1-3,6-8
44. Neh. 8:13-15
45. Neh. 8:18
46. Neh. 9:3
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What Is A Rabbi
Tanakh And Oral Law
The Oral Law As Interpretation
The Historical Development Of Oral Law
A Fence Around The Torah
Confronting The Scriptures
Uprooting the Scriptures